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1 Medicalxpress,1月17日,Additional antibodies may protect against COVID 2022-01-26

When we talk about antibodies against COVID-19,we tend to mean the so-called neutralizing antibodies,that offer protection by blocking the virus from invading our cells.Now,a new study from Lund University in Sweden has revealed that non-neutralizing antibodies may also be important in providing protection against COVID. "Our results indicate that non-neutralizing antibodies could also provide protection.This would mean that we have broader protection from antibodies than previously thought,making us less vulnerable to mutations of the virus.It warrants further investigation,"says Pontus Nordenfelt who led the study and is aresearcher at Lund University. In its efforts to produce vaccines and treatments,the research community has focused on neutralisingantibodies,which prevent the spike protein of the virus from binding to the surface protein on our cells. In alarge project led by researchers at Lund University,a more detailed study has been carried out on how the immune system also fights off the virus by means of phagocytosis,the ability to ingest foreign particles,in COVID-19 patients. Phagocytosis is atype of cleansing mechanism during which the immune system's players target potential threats,such as bacteria or viruses,and ingests them,and this mechanism is facilitated if the harmful substance is marked by an antibody.The results,published in athemed issue of Frontiers in Immunology,indicate that non-neutralizing antibodies are also important in the fight against COVID—through this mechanism. "We observed that many of the antibodies that develop in response to COVID-19 are opsonising,i.e.they signal to the immune system's phagocytes to ingest the virus.Our results indicate that non-neutralizing antibodies,so long as they are able to opsonise,are also able to provide an effective response to the virus,"says Pontus Nordenfelt. The findings are supported by experiments on mice,in which the non-neutralizing antibodies protected the animals from COVID-19 infection. The research team also discovered that the amount of neutralizing antibodies affects the process of phagocytosis. The team identified and isolated immune system cells from the blood of recovered COVID-19 patients.Using several techniques,they mapped which immune cells interact with the virus's spike protein and identified the antibody binding sites.Then,using flow cytometry,they studied how these antibodies affect phagocytosis. 查看详细>>

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2 Medicalxpress,1月14日,Research team finds new dual benefit mode of action for a drug candidate to fight COVID-19 2022-01-26

A research team led by Prof.Stephan Ludwig,a virologist at the Institute of Virology at the University of Münster,has found anew dual attack mode of action while working on the development of adrug candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infections.This could constitute the basis for abroadly effective drug to fight COVID-19.The data,which have now been published in the journal Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences,provided the basis for the approval issued by the German Institute of Drugs and Medicinal Products for aclinical study currently being worked on. The drug can not only inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in cells,but also reduce the exaggerated immune response which represents aserious problem in severe cases of COVID."In the results we have published,we have been able for the first time to show such adual action for an anti-COVID-19 agent,"explains Stephan Ludwig,who has overall responsibility for the research work.The team is collaborating with researchers at the Universities of Würzburg and Tübingen,the German Primate Centre in Göttingen,and the'Atriva Therapeutics'start-up established by scientists of the Universities of Münster,Tübingen and Gießen. The active agent in question,called Zapnometinib or ATR-002,which was originally under development as anti-flu medication,was effective in avariety of cell culture models—including activity against all tested variants of SARS-CoV-2,which also implies abroad applicability in facing up to any coming variants in the future.Animal testing to confirm these findings are currently under-way."Positive results from the still ongoing clinical study in humans might already lead to an emergency approval this year for anew,broadly effective COVID-19 medication.The benefit is clear,"says Stephan Ludwig. 查看详细>>

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3 Medicalxpress,1月13日,WHO recommends two new drugs to treat patients with COVID-19 2022-01-26

The drug baricitinib(a type of drug known as aJanus kinase(JAK)inhibitor,also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis)is strongly recommended for patients with severe or critical COVID-19 in combination with corticosteroids,says aWHO Guideline Development Group of international experts in The BMJ today. Their strong recommendation is based on moderate certainty evidence that it improves survival and reduces the need for ventilation,with no observed increase in adverse effects. The WHO experts note that baricitinib has similar effects to other arthritis drugs called interleukin-6(IL-6)inhibitors so,when both are available,they suggest choosing one based on cost,availability,and clinician experience.It is not recommended to use both drugs at the same time. However,the experts advise against the use of two other JAK inhibitors(ruxolitinib and tofacitinib)for patients with severe or critical COVID-19 because low certainty evidence from small trials failed to show benefit and suggests apossible increase in serious side effects with tofacitinib. In the same guideline update,WHO also makes aconditional recommendation for the use of the monoclonal antibody sotrovimab in patients with non-severe COVID-19,but only in those at highest risk of hospitalization,reflecting trivial benefits in those at lower risk. A similar recommendation has been made by WHO for another monoclonal antibody drug(casirivimab-imdevimab).The experts also note that there were insufficient data to recommend one monoclonal antibody treatment over another—and they acknowledge that their effectiveness against new variants like omicron is still uncertain. As such,they say guidelines for monoclonal antibodies will be updated when additional data become available. 查看详细>>

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4 Medicalxpress,1月13日,Preliminary research suggests SARS-CoV-2 virus less infectious within five minutes of exposure to air 2022-01-25

In astudy that has not yet been peer-reviewed or accepted for publication,researchers at Bristol University in the U.K.have found evidence that suggests the SARS-CoV-2 virus becomes less infectious within five minutes of exposure to air.The team has published apaper on the pre-print server MedRxiv describing tests designed to simulate the behavior of the virus after it is transmitted into the air by an infected person. Since the pandemic first began,health care officials have been asking people around the world to wear amask.The main purpose of such masks for non-health-care workers is to slow the speed with which the virus is transmitted into the air as aperson exhales,sneezes or coughs.The thinking has been that wearing amask helps to protect those around an infected person.In this new effort,the researchers found evidence that suggests the virus,once transmitted into the air,has only five minutes until it starts losing its ability to infect other people.If the finding proves to be accurate,wearing amask becomes even more important.Preventing the virus from sailing across an open space when it only has five minutes to infect someone would reduce its transmissibility drastically. The researchers chose asimulation method that has not been used by other researchers—instead of using Goldberg drums,they created an apparatus that generates and levitates viruses between electric rings.The virus samples are thus held in astate in which their infectiousness could be measured. The researchers found that its transmissibility began dropping within five minutes of exposure to the air.A closer look showed that this is because it begins to dry out and suffers alack of carbon dioxide.They found that after 20 minutes,the transmissibility of the virus was reduced by 90 percent.They also found that more humid air slowed the loss of transmissibility,and that temperature had no impact. At this time,it is not yet clear how well the method matches with conditions in anatural environment.Also,the new method does not take into account ventilation,room size or the viral load of the infected person.And finally,it is still not known what level of transmissibility the virus must have in order to infect people. 查看详细>>

来源: 点击量:22

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