您当前的位置: 首页 > 资源详细信息

OSA | Sensitivity study on the contribution of scattering by randomly oriented nonspherical hydrosols to linear polarization in clear to semi-turbid shallow waters

References. View by:. Article Order. Year. Author. Publication. A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] . N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, “Transmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619–3628 (2004). [Crossref] . N. Shashar, P. Rutledge, and T. Cronin, “Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?” J. Exp. Biol. 199, 2077–2084 (1996). . S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Under water polarization vision-A physical examination,” in Transworld Research Network India Recent Research and Development Experimental & Theoretical Biology (2005), Vol. 37661, pp. 81–7895. . N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] . T. W. Cronin, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 549–558 (2003). [Crossref] . S. Johnsen, N. J. Marshall, and E. A. Widder, “Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 655–670 (2011). . A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] . J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008). [Crossref] . J. H. Churnside, “Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea,” Opt. Express 18, 8294–8299 (2010). [Crossref] . J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] . M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] . B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] . S. M. Goddard and R. B. Forward, “The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 479–491 (1991). [Crossref] . G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Underwater refraction-polarization patterns of skylight perceived by aquatic animals through Snell’s window of the flat water surface,” Vision Res. 35, 1651–1666 (1995). [Crossref] . I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] . M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] . S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] . G. Belušič, K. Šporar, and A. Meglič, “Extreme polarization sensitivity in the retina of the corn borer moth Ostrinia,” J. Exp. Biol. 220, 2047–2056 (2017). [Crossref] . F. J. Stewart, M. Kinoshita, and K. Arikawa, “A novel display system reveals anisotropic polarization perception in the motion vision of the butterfly Papilio xuthus,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 1130–1138 (2017). [Crossref] . R. Schwind, Z. Der Universität, and D. Regensburg, “Daphnia Pulex swims towards the most strongly polarized light—a response that leads to “shore flight”,” J. Exp. Biol. 3635, 3631–3635 (1999). . S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] . K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991). [Crossref] . K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the facility for atmospheric remote sensing. Part ii: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001). [Crossref] . M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] . D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] . X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] . J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] . M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001). [Crossref] . M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 112, 1–13 (2007). [Crossref] . J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010). [Crossref] . J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006). [Crossref] . A. P. Vasilkov, T. V. Kondranin, and E. V. Myasnikov, “Determination of vertical dependence of the scattering coefficient from polarization characteristics of backscattering light at pulse remote sensing of the ocean,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 26, 307–312 (1990). . A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] . Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] . J. H. Churnside, B. J. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013). [Crossref] . A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). . D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). . X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] . M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] . S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] . A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] . J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] . G. W. Kattawar, “Genesis and evolution of polarization of light in the ocean [invited],” Appl. Opt. 52, 940–948 (2013). [Crossref] . A. Lerner, N. Shashar, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effects of hydrosol size and composition on linear polarization in absorbing and nonabsorbing clear and semiturbid waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2394–2405 (2012). [Crossref] . A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 283–307 (1958). . A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129–148 (1961). [Crossref] . V. A. Timofeyeva, “Spatial distribution of the degree of polarization of natural light in the sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 12, 1160–1164 (1962). . G. F. Beardsley, “The polarization of submarine daylight at near-asymptotic depths,” J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6449–6457 (1968). [Crossref] . Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by sea water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557 (1971). . Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106 (1976). . Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77 (1977). . R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, and E. S. Fry, “Scattering matrix measurements of oceanic hydrosols,” in Ocean Optics V (1978), Vol. 160, pp. 43–49. . K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984). [Crossref] . K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010). [Crossref] . T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461–2467 (2001). . M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water: Theoretical and Experimental Constraints (Elsevier, 2007). . A. Ivanoff, “Polarization measurements in the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography (1974), pp. 151–175. . P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] . M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, and A. J. Hunt, “Polarized light scattering in the marine environment,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (2000), Vol. 525. . D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001). [Crossref] . G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. . J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 335–346 (2011). [Crossref] . C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994). . E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985). [Crossref] . H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] . M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] . Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] . M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] . H. Volten, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001). [Crossref] . O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] . M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] . J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Susstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (2013), pp. 168–179. . W. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, Inherent Optical Properties of Nonspherical Marine-Like Particles, From Theory To Observation (2007). . A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light scattering by marine algae: two-layer spherical and nonspherical models,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 89, 311–321 (2004). [Crossref] . B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] . G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] . L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] . B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] . Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] . A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] . S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962 (1980). [Crossref] . M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994). [Crossref] . M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987). [Crossref] . A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006). [Crossref] . S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] . W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] . M. Kotlarchyk, S. Chen, and S. Asano, “Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2470–2479 (1979). [Crossref] . H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] . M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] . H. R. Gordon and T. Du, “light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detatched from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001). [Crossref] . J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] . L. Bi and P. Yang, “Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 155, 10–21 (2015). [Crossref] . F. J. Jochem, “Morphology and DNA content of bacterioplankton in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Analysis by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 25, 179–194 (2001). [Crossref] . D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. . D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Optical properties of marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics X (1990), Vol. 1302, pp. 250–269. . P. W. Johnson and J. M. Sieburth, “In-situ morphology and occurrence of eucaryotic phototrophs of bacterial size in the picoplankton of estuarine and oceanic waters 1,” J. Phycol. 18, 318–327 (1982). [Crossref] . R. Allman, R. Manchee, and D. Lloyd, “Flow cytometric analysis of heterogeneous bacterial populations,” in Flow Cytometry in Microbiology (Springer, 1993), pp. 27–47. . M. J. Richardson, “Particle size, light scattering and composition of suspended particulate matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 34, 1301–1329 (1987). [Crossref] . M. R. Whiles and W. K. Dodds, “Relationships between stream size, suspended particles, and filter-feeding macroinvertebrates in a great plains drainage network,” J. Environ. Qual. 31, 1589–1600(2002). [Crossref] . E. Breitenbach, R. Lampe, and T. Leipe, “Investigations on mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Odra estuary,” Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 27, 298–302 (1999). [Crossref] . J. H. Martin, “Iron as a limiting factor in oceanic productivity,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea (Springer, 1992), pp. 123–137. . E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] . R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] . O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] . S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] . M. Jonasz, “Nonspherical sediment particles: comparison of size and volume distributions obtained with an optical and a resistive particle counter,” Mar. Geol. 78, 137–142 (1987). [Crossref] . Y. S. Lyubovtseva and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurements of the light scattering matrices of suspensions of nonspherical particles,” Oceanology 15, 111–115 (1976). . P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] . C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] . K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] . K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] . S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984). [Crossref] . J. Li and K. Osada, “Water-insoluble particles in spring snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan: characteristics of the shape factors and size distribution in relation with their origin and transportation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85, 137–149 (2007). [Crossref] . E. A. Reid, “Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8591 (2003). [Crossref] . B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] . N. Moteki, Y. Kondo, and S. I. Nakamura, “Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: application to black carbon particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 41, 513–521 (2010). [Crossref] . D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] . M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] . M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 135–144 (2013). [Crossref] . H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: a review,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 844–878 (2009). [Crossref] . K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1581–1594 (2011). [Crossref] . S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] . A. R. Jones, “Light scattering in combustion,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (2013), pp. 393–444. . J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979). [Crossref] . A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Optical properties of bubbles,” J. Opt. A 5, 47 (2002). [Crossref] . X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998). [Crossref] . D. Iluz, I. Alexandrovich, and Z. Dubinsky, “The enhancement of photosynthesis by fluctuating light,” in Artificial Photosynthesis (InTech, 2012). . S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] . W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston, “Unfolded optical glory of spheroids: backscattering of laser light from freely rising spheroidal air bubbles in water,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3429–3442 (1991). [Crossref] . A. Sam, C. O. Gomez, and J. A. Finch, “Axial velocity profiles of single bubbles in water/frother solutions,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 47, 177–196 (1996). [Crossref] . H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] . E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996). [Crossref] . B. Wozniak and J. Derra, Light Absorption in Sea Water (Springer, 2007), Vol. 33. . M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] . A. Sinyuk, O. Torres, and O. Dubovik, “Combined use of satellite and surface observations to infer the imaginary part of refractive index of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 3–6 (2003). [Crossref] . D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry (CRC Press, 2001), Vol. 76, pp. 1995–1996. . M. R. Querry, Optical Constants (1985). . O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] . G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] . K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104, 15941–15954 (1999). [Crossref] . T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006). [Crossref] . S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4726–4739 (2006). [Crossref] . Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] . Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] . E. Boss, personal communication, 2018. . C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983). . M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998). [Crossref] . L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] . L. Bi and P. Yang, “Accurate simulation of the optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals with the invariant imbedding T-matrix method,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 138, 17–35 (2014). [Crossref] . A. Macke and M. I. Mishchenko, “Applicability of regular particle shapes in light scattering calculations for atmospheric ice particles,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4291–4296 (1996). [Crossref] . A. Macke, personal communication, 2011. . G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical Constants of Water in the 200-nm to 200-μm Wavelength Region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [Crossref] . M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, W. J. Wiscombe, and L. D. Travis, “Overview of scattering by nonspherical particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 29–60. . N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5052–5057 (2000). [Crossref] . R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971). [Crossref] . M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995). [Crossref] . M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998). [Crossref] . T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] . T. C. Sheives, A Study of a Dual Polarization Laser Backscatter System for Remote Identification and Measurement of Water Pollution (1974). . W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] . W. P. Van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, and B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057(1989). [Crossref] . W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] . X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). . L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] . 2018 (7). B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] 2017 (6). S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] G. Belušič, K. Šporar, and A. Meglič, “Extreme polarization sensitivity in the retina of the corn borer moth Ostrinia,” J. Exp. Biol. 220, 2047–2056 (2017). [Crossref] F. J. Stewart, M. Kinoshita, and K. Arikawa, “A novel display system reveals anisotropic polarization perception in the motion vision of the butterfly Papilio xuthus,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 1130–1138 (2017). [Crossref] M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] 2016 (6). I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] 2015 (4). A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 155, 10–21 (2015). [Crossref] M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] 2014 (1). L. Bi and P. Yang, “Accurate simulation of the optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals with the invariant imbedding T-matrix method,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 138, 17–35 (2014). [Crossref] 2013 (6). L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 135–144 (2013). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, “Genesis and evolution of polarization of light in the ocean [invited],” Appl. Opt. 52, 940–948 (2013). [Crossref] M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, B. J. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013). [Crossref] 2012 (4). J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] A. Lerner, N. Shashar, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effects of hydrosol size and composition on linear polarization in absorbing and nonabsorbing clear and semiturbid waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2394–2405 (2012). [Crossref] H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] 2011 (15). X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1581–1594 (2011). [Crossref] J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 335–346 (2011). [Crossref] Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, N. J. Marshall, and E. A. Widder, “Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 655–670 (2011). A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] 2010 (5). J. H. Churnside, “Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea,” Opt. Express 18, 8294–8299 (2010). [Crossref] J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010). [Crossref] T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010). [Crossref] N. Moteki, Y. Kondo, and S. I. Nakamura, “Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: application to black carbon particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 41, 513–521 (2010). [Crossref] 2009 (5). D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: a review,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 844–878 (2009). [Crossref] S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] 2008 (3). C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008). [Crossref] 2007 (3). G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] J. Li and K. Osada, “Water-insoluble particles in spring snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan: characteristics of the shape factors and size distribution in relation with their origin and transportation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85, 137–149 (2007). [Crossref] M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 112, 1–13 (2007). [Crossref] 2006 (7). O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006). [Crossref] O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006). [Crossref] S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4726–4739 (2006). [Crossref] J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006). [Crossref] 2005 (2). M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] 2004 (3). N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, “Transmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619–3628 (2004). [Crossref] A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light scattering by marine algae: two-layer spherical and nonspherical models,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 89, 311–321 (2004). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] 2003 (3). A. Sinyuk, O. Torres, and O. Dubovik, “Combined use of satellite and surface observations to infer the imaginary part of refractive index of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 3–6 (2003). [Crossref] E. A. Reid, “Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8591 (2003). [Crossref] T. W. Cronin, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 549–558 (2003). [Crossref] 2002 (2). M. R. Whiles and W. K. Dodds, “Relationships between stream size, suspended particles, and filter-feeding macroinvertebrates in a great plains drainage network,” J. Environ. Qual. 31, 1589–1600(2002). [Crossref] A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Optical properties of bubbles,” J. Opt. A 5, 47 (2002). [Crossref] 2001 (11). M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001). [Crossref] D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001). [Crossref] A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] F. J. Jochem, “Morphology and DNA content of bacterioplankton in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Analysis by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 25, 179–194 (2001). [Crossref] K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] H. R. Gordon and T. Du, “light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detatched from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001). [Crossref] H. Volten, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001). [Crossref] O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461–2467 (2001). K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the facility for atmospheric remote sensing. Part ii: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] 2000 (1). N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5052–5057 (2000). [Crossref] 1999 (4). K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104, 15941–15954 (1999). [Crossref] R. Schwind, Z. Der Universität, and D. Regensburg, “Daphnia Pulex swims towards the most strongly polarized light—a response that leads to “shore flight”,” J. Exp. Biol. 3635, 3631–3635 (1999). H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] E. Breitenbach, R. Lampe, and T. Leipe, “Investigations on mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Odra estuary,” Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 27, 298–302 (1999). [Crossref] 1998 (5). H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998). [Crossref] X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998). [Crossref] 1997 (2). W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] 1996 (4). N. Shashar, P. Rutledge, and T. Cronin, “Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?” J. Exp. Biol. 199, 2077–2084 (1996). A. Sam, C. O. Gomez, and J. A. Finch, “Axial velocity profiles of single bubbles in water/frother solutions,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 47, 177–196 (1996). [Crossref] E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996). [Crossref] A. Macke and M. I. Mishchenko, “Applicability of regular particle shapes in light scattering calculations for atmospheric ice particles,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4291–4296 (1996). [Crossref] 1995 (2). M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995). [Crossref] G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Underwater refraction-polarization patterns of skylight perceived by aquatic animals through Snell’s window of the flat water surface,” Vision Res. 35, 1651–1666 (1995). [Crossref] 1994 (1). M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994). [Crossref] 1991 (3). W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston, “Unfolded optical glory of spheroids: backscattering of laser light from freely rising spheroidal air bubbles in water,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3429–3442 (1991). [Crossref] S. M. Goddard and R. B. Forward, “The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 479–491 (1991). [Crossref] K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991). [Crossref] 1990 (1). A. P. Vasilkov, T. V. Kondranin, and E. V. Myasnikov, “Determination of vertical dependence of the scattering coefficient from polarization characteristics of backscattering light at pulse remote sensing of the ocean,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 26, 307–312 (1990). 1989 (2). M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, and B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057(1989). [Crossref] 1987 (3). M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987). [Crossref] M. J. Richardson, “Particle size, light scattering and composition of suspended particulate matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 34, 1301–1329 (1987). [Crossref] M. Jonasz, “Nonspherical sediment particles: comparison of size and volume distributions obtained with an optical and a resistive particle counter,” Mar. Geol. 78, 137–142 (1987). [Crossref] 1985 (1). E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985). [Crossref] 1984 (2). S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984). [Crossref] 1982 (1). P. W. Johnson and J. M. Sieburth, “In-situ morphology and occurrence of eucaryotic phototrophs of bacterial size in the picoplankton of estuarine and oceanic waters 1,” J. Phycol. 18, 318–327 (1982). [Crossref] 1980 (1). S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962 (1980). [Crossref] 1979 (2). M. Kotlarchyk, S. Chen, and S. Asano, “Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2470–2479 (1979). [Crossref] J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979). [Crossref] 1977 (2). J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77 (1977). 1976 (3). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106 (1976). Y. S. Lyubovtseva and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurements of the light scattering matrices of suspensions of nonspherical particles,” Oceanology 15, 111–115 (1976). W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] 1973 (1). G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical Constants of Water in the 200-nm to 200-μm Wavelength Region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [Crossref] 1971 (2). R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971). [Crossref] Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by sea water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557 (1971). 1968 (1). G. F. Beardsley, “The polarization of submarine daylight at near-asymptotic depths,” J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6449–6457 (1968). [Crossref] 1962 (1). V. A. Timofeyeva, “Spatial distribution of the degree of polarization of natural light in the sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 12, 1160–1164 (1962). 1961 (1). A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129–148 (1961). [Crossref] 1958 (1). A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 283–307 (1958). Aas, E.. E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996). [Crossref] Aas, L. M. S.. Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] Abu-Ghosh, S.. S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] Adams, J. T.. J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 335–346 (2011). [Crossref] Ahmed, S. A.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Alexandrovich, I.. D. Iluz, I. Alexandrovich, and Z. Dubinsky, “The enhancement of photosynthesis by fluctuating light,” in Artificial Photosynthesis (InTech, 2012). Allman, R.. R. Allman, R. Manchee, and D. Lloyd, “Flow cytometric analysis of heterogeneous bacterial populations,” in Flow Cytometry in Microbiology (Springer, 1993), pp. 27–47. Amis, E. J.. D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. Andreae, M. O.. G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Arikawa, K.. F. J. Stewart, M. Kinoshita, and K. Arikawa, “A novel display system reveals anisotropic polarization perception in the motion vision of the butterfly Papilio xuthus,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 1130–1138 (2017). [Crossref] Arnone, R. A.. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Arnott, W. P.. H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: a review,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 844–878 (2009). [Crossref] W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston, “Unfolded optical glory of spheroids: backscattering of laser light from freely rising spheroidal air bubbles in water,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3429–3442 (1991). [Crossref] Artaxo, P.. M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] Asano, S.. S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962 (1980). [Crossref] M. Kotlarchyk, S. Chen, and S. Asano, “Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2470–2479 (1979). [Crossref] Audouy, C.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Ausset, P.. C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Bacon, M. P.. J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Balch, W. M.. B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] Balkanski, Y.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] Barber, P. W.. S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984). [Crossref] Beardsley, G. F.. G. F. Beardsley, “The polarization of submarine daylight at near-asymptotic depths,” J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6449–6457 (1968). [Crossref] Behrenfeld, M. J.. M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Belušic, G.. G. Belušič, K. Šporar, and A. Meglič, “Extreme polarization sensitivity in the retina of the corn borer moth Ostrinia,” J. Exp. Biol. 220, 2047–2056 (2017). [Crossref] Benson, S.. K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the facility for atmospheric remote sensing. Part ii: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001). [Crossref] Berg, L. K.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Bergstrom, R. W.. T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006). [Crossref] Bernard, S.. A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006). [Crossref] A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light scattering by marine algae: two-layer spherical and nonspherical models,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 89, 311–321 (2004). [Crossref] Bhandari, P.. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] Bi, L.. L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 155, 10–21 (2015). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Accurate simulation of the optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals with the invariant imbedding T-matrix method,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 138, 17–35 (2014). [Crossref] L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. Bickel, W. S.. W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] Bishop, J. K. B.. J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Bohren, C. F.. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983). Bond, T. C.. T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006). [Crossref] Boss, E.. W. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, Inherent Optical Properties of Nonspherical Marine-Like Particles, From Theory To Observation (2007). E. Boss, personal communication, 2018. Bottiger, J. R.. R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, and E. S. Fry, “Scattering matrix measurements of oceanic hydrosols,” in Ocean Optics V (1978), Vol. 160, pp. 43–49. Brady, P.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Breitenbach, E.. E. Breitenbach, R. Lampe, and T. Leipe, “Investigations on mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Odra estuary,” Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 27, 298–302 (1999). [Crossref] Bréon, F. M.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Bricaud, A.. D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001). [Crossref] Bronk, B. V.. S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, and B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057(1989). [Crossref] Brooks, S. D.. G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] Brown, A. J.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Burton, S.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Byrne, S.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Cairns, B.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006). [Crossref] Cayula, S. C.. A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). Cetinic, I.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Chakrabarty, R. K.. H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: a review,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 844–878 (2009). [Crossref] Chami, M.. M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 112, 1–13 (2007). [Crossref] M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001). [Crossref] Chand, D.. G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Charlton, F.. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Chen, S.. M. Kotlarchyk, S. Chen, and S. Asano, “Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2470–2479 (1979). [Crossref] Chenault, D. B.. J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] Chiao, C.-C.. N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] Chiou, T. H.. S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] Chou, C.. C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Chowdhary, J.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006). [Crossref] Christy, J. H.. M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] Churnside, J. H.. M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, B. J. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, “Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea,” Opt. Express 18, 8294–8299 (2010). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008). [Crossref] Clavano, W.. W. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, Inherent Optical Properties of Nonspherical Marine-Like Particles, From Theory To Observation (2007). Colaprete, A.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Collister, B. L.. B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] Concannon, B.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Cook, T.. S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] Cronin, T.. N. Shashar, P. Rutledge, and T. Cronin, “Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?” J. Exp. Biol. 199, 2077–2084 (1996). Cronin, T. W.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, “Transmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619–3628 (2004). [Crossref] T. W. Cronin, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 549–558 (2003). [Crossref] T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461–2467 (2001). Cummings, M. E.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Czege, J.. S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] Czégé, J.. W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] Dall’Olmo, G.. M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Daly, I. M.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] Davidson, J. F.. W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] De Haan, J. F.. O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Dekker, A. G.. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Der Universität, Z.. R. Schwind, Z. Der Universität, and D. Regensburg, “Daphnia Pulex swims towards the most strongly polarized light—a response that leads to “shore flight”,” J. Exp. Biol. 3635, 3631–3635 (1999). Derra, J.. B. Wozniak and J. Derra, Light Absorption in Sea Water (Springer, 2007), Vol. 33. Desboeufs, K.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] Deutscher, C.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Deuzé, J. L.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Devaux, C.. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Di Carlo, D.. M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] Dierssen, H. M.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Dilligeard, E.. M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001). [Crossref] Dodds, W. K.. M. R. Whiles and W. K. Dodds, “Relationships between stream size, suspended particles, and filter-feeding macroinvertebrates in a great plains drainage network,” J. Environ. Qual. 31, 1589–1600(2002). [Crossref] Donaghay, P. L.. J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] Doose, L. R.. R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] Druger, S. D.. S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] Du, T.. H. R. Gordon and T. Du, “light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detatched from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001). [Crossref] Dubinsky, Z.. S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] D. Iluz, I. Alexandrovich, and Z. Dubinsky, “The enhancement of photosynthesis by fluctuating light,” in Artificial Photosynthesis (InTech, 2012). Dubovik, O.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] A. Sinyuk, O. Torres, and O. Dubovik, “Combined use of satellite and surface observations to infer the imaginary part of refractive index of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 3–6 (2003). [Crossref] M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] Ducos, F.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] Durham, W. M.. Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] Dürselen, C. D.. H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] Ebert, M.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Eck, T. F.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Edmond, J. M.. J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Eibl, A. M.. R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] Erga, S. R.. Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] Erlick, C.. A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Under water polarization vision-A physical examination,” in Transworld Research Network India Recent Research and Development Experimental & Theoretical Biology (2005), Vol. 37661, pp. 81–7895. Ferrare, R.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Ferrier, C.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Finch, J. A.. A. Sam, C. O. Gomez, and J. A. Finch, “Axial velocity profiles of single bubbles in water/frother solutions,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 47, 177–196 (1996). [Crossref] Fixler, D.. S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] Flores-Cervantes, D. X.. D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] Formenti, P.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Forward, R. B.. S. M. Goddard and R. B. Forward, “The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 479–491 (1991). [Crossref] Fournier, G. R.. M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water: Theoretical and Experimental Constraints (Elsevier, 2007). François, P.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] Frette, Ø.. Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] Fry, E. S.. E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984). [Crossref] R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, and E. S. Fry, “Scattering matrix measurements of oceanic hydrosols,” in Ocean Optics V (1978), Vol. 160, pp. 43–49. Fuller, K. A.. K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104, 15941–15954 (1999). [Crossref] Gagnon, Y. L.. S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] Gedanken, A.. S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] Getzewich, B.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Gilerson, A.. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Gilerson, A. A.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Goda, K.. M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] Goddard, S. M.. S. M. Goddard and R. B. Forward, “The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 479–491 (1991). [Crossref] Goldin, Y. A.. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] Goldstein, D. L.. J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] Goloub, P.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] Goloub, P. H.. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Gomez, C. O.. A. Sam, C. O. Gomez, and J. A. Finch, “Axial velocity profiles of single bubbles in water/frother solutions,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 47, 177–196 (1996). [Crossref] Goode, W.. A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). Gordon, H. R.. H. R. Gordon and T. Du, “light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detatched from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001). [Crossref] Gray, D. J.. J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 335–346 (2011). [Crossref] A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). Gross, B. M.. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Gruev, V.. S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] Grund, C. J.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Gschwend, P. M.. D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] Gu, J.. J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Susstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (2013), pp. 168–179. Gureev, B. A.. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] Hair, J.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Hair, J. W.. M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Hale, G. M.. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical Constants of Water in the 200-nm to 200-μm Wavelength Region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [Crossref] Hanlon, R. T.. N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] Haouchine, S.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Harrison, M.. C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Haspel, C.. M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] A. Lerner, N. Shashar, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effects of hydrosol size and composition on linear polarization in absorbing and nonabsorbing clear and semiturbid waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2394–2405 (2012). [Crossref] He, H.. H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] Heintzenberg, J.. K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] Helas, G.. C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Hemmi, J. M.. M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] Herman, M.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Hill, A. C.. S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984). [Crossref] Hill, S. C.. S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984). [Crossref] Hill, V. J.. B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] Hillebrand, H.. H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] Hioki, S.. G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. Hoffer, A.. G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Hofmann, H.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Hoge, F. E.. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] Holben, B. N.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] Hoogenboom, H. J.. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Horváth, G.. G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Underwater refraction-polarization patterns of skylight perceived by aquatic animals through Snell’s window of the flat water surface,” Vision Res. 35, 1651–1666 (1995). [Crossref] Hostetler, C.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Hostetler, C. A.. M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Hou, W.. D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). Hovenier, J. W.. O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, W. J. Wiscombe, and L. D. Travis, “Overview of scattering by nonspherical particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 29–60. How, M. J.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] Hu, Y.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Huang, X.. X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. Huffman, D. R.. W. P. Van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, and B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057(1989). [Crossref] W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983). Hull, P. G.. M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, and A. J. Hunt, “Polarized light scattering in the marine environment,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (2000), Vol. 525. Hunt, A. J.. M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, and A. J. Hunt, “Polarized light scattering in the marine environment,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (2000), Vol. 525. Hunt, B.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Iluz, D.. M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] D. Iluz, I. Alexandrovich, and Z. Dubinsky, “The enhancement of photosynthesis by fluctuating light,” in Artificial Photosynthesis (InTech, 2012). Ivanoff, A.. A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129–148 (1961). [Crossref] A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 283–307 (1958). A. Ivanoff, “Polarization measurements in the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography (1974), pp. 151–175. Jäckel, S.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Jaenicke, R.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Jalava, J. P.. O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] Janzen, J.. J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979). [Crossref] Järvinen, E.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] Jerlov, N.. A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129–148 (1961). [Crossref] Jiang, J.. J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Susstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (2013), pp. 168–179. Jochem, F. J.. F. J. Jochem, “Morphology and DNA content of bacterioplankton in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Analysis by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 25, 179–194 (2001). [Crossref] Johnsen, S.. S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, N. J. Marshall, and E. A. Widder, “Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 655–670 (2011). N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] Johnson, B.. X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998). [Crossref] Johnson, P. W.. P. W. Johnson and J. M. Sieburth, “In-situ morphology and occurrence of eucaryotic phototrophs of bacterial size in the picoplankton of estuarine and oceanic waters 1,” J. Phycol. 18, 318–327 (1982). [Crossref] Jonasz, M.. M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987). [Crossref] M. Jonasz, “Nonspherical sediment particles: comparison of size and volume distributions obtained with an optical and a resistive particle counter,” Mar. Geol. 78, 137–142 (1987). [Crossref] M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water: Theoretical and Experimental Constraints (Elsevier, 2007). Jones, A. R.. A. R. Jones, “Light scattering in combustion,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (2013), pp. 393–444. Josset, D. B.. D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). Kadyshevich, Y. A.. Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77 (1977). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106 (1976). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by sea water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557 (1971). Kahnert, M.. S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] Kai, K.. K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] Kandler, K.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Kane, T. J.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Karp-Boss, L.. W. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, Inherent Optical Properties of Nonspherical Marine-Like Particles, From Theory To Observation (2007). Kattawar, G.. B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] Kattawar, G. W.. G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, “Genesis and evolution of polarization of light in the ocean [invited],” Appl. Opt. 52, 940–948 (2013). [Crossref] L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. Kaufman, Y. J.. M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] Kemppinen, O.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] Ketten, D. R.. J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Kiefer, D. A.. D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Optical properties of marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics X (1990), Vol. 1302, pp. 250–269. Kildemo, M.. Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] Kilkson, R.. W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] Kinoshita, M.. F. J. Stewart, M. Kinoshita, and K. Arikawa, “A novel display system reveals anisotropic polarization perception in the motion vision of the butterfly Papilio xuthus,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 1130–1138 (2017). [Crossref] Kirchstetter, T. W.. B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] Kirschtel, D.. H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] Knippertz, P.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Kociok, T.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] Kokhanovsky, A. A.. A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Optical properties of bubbles,” J. Opt. A 5, 47 (2002). [Crossref] Kondo, Y.. N. Moteki, Y. Kondo, and S. I. Nakamura, “Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: application to black carbon particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 41, 513–521 (2010). [Crossref] Kondranin, T. V.. A. P. Vasilkov, T. V. Kondranin, and E. V. Myasnikov, “Determination of vertical dependence of the scattering coefficient from polarization characteristics of backscattering light at pulse remote sensing of the ocean,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 26, 307–312 (1990). Kotlarchyk, M.. M. Kotlarchyk, S. Chen, and S. Asano, “Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2470–2479 (1979). [Crossref] Kreidenweis, S. M.. K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104, 15941–15954 (1999). [Crossref] Kumar, V. B.. S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] Lafrance, B.. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Lallart, P.. M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Lampe, R.. E. Breitenbach, R. Lampe, and T. Leipe, “Investigations on mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Odra estuary,” Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 27, 298–302 (1999). [Crossref] Lapyonok, T.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Laux, A.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Lee, J. H.. J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] Leipe, T.. E. Breitenbach, R. Lampe, and T. Leipe, “Investigations on mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Odra estuary,” Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 27, 298–302 (1999). [Crossref] Leisner, T.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] Leon, J. F.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Lerner, A.. M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] A. Lerner, N. Shashar, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effects of hydrosol size and composition on linear polarization in absorbing and nonabsorbing clear and semiturbid waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2394–2405 (2012). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Under water polarization vision-A physical examination,” in Transworld Research Network India Recent Research and Development Experimental & Theoretical Biology (2005), Vol. 37661, pp. 81–7895. Lewis, M.. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998). [Crossref] Li, J.. J. Li and K. Osada, “Water-insoluble particles in spring snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan: characteristics of the shape factors and size distribution in relation with their origin and transportation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85, 137–149 (2007). [Crossref] Li, M.. M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] Li, W.. H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] Li, Z.. S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] Li, Z. Z.. W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] Lide, D. R.. D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry (CRC Press, 2001), Vol. 76, pp. 1995–1996. Lieke, K.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Lifermann, A.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] Lin, W.. L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] Lindqvist, H.. S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] Linke, C.. M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Liou, K. N.. X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1581–1594 (2011). [Crossref] Liu, D.. L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Susstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (2013), pp. 168–179. Liu, K.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Liu, L.. M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 135–144 (2013). [Crossref] Liu, W.. X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). Liu, X.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Lloyd, D.. R. Allman, R. Manchee, and D. Lloyd, “Flow cytometric analysis of heterogeneous bacterial populations,” in Flow Cytometry in Microbiology (Springer, 1993), pp. 27–47. Lofftus, K.. M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] Logan, L.. P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] Lotsberg, J. K.. J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010). [Crossref] Lu, X.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, B. J. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013). [Crossref] Lucker, P.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Luhar, M.. Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] Lyubovtseva, Y. S.. Y. S. Lyubovtseva and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurements of the light scattering matrices of suspensions of nonspherical particles,” Oceanology 15, 111–115 (1976). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106 (1976). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by sea water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557 (1971). MacFarlane, J. K.. D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] Macke, A.. Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] A. Macke and M. I. Mishchenko, “Applicability of regular particle shapes in light scattering calculations for atmospheric ice particles,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4291–4296 (1996). [Crossref] A. Macke, personal communication, 2011. Mackowski, D. W.. M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 135–144 (2013). [Crossref] Maignan, F.. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Maille, M.. C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Malm, W. C.. K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104, 15941–15954 (1999). [Crossref] Manchee, R.. R. Allman, R. Manchee, and D. Lloyd, “Flow cytometric analysis of heterogeneous bacterial populations,” in Flow Cytometry in Microbiology (Springer, 1993), pp. 27–47. Mano, Y.. T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] Marchand, A.. M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Marchbanks, R. D.. J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] Marcos, . Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] Marshall, N. J.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, N. J. Marshall, and E. A. Widder, “Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 655–670 (2011). Marston, P. L.. W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston, “Unfolded optical glory of spheroids: backscattering of laser light from freely rising spheroidal air bubbles in water,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3429–3442 (1991). [Crossref] Martin, J. H.. J. H. Martin, “Iron as a limiting factor in oceanic productivity,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea (Springer, 1992), pp. 123–137. Martin, W.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Massling, A.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Mathger, L. M.. N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] Matt, S.. D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). McCarty, B. J.. J. H. Churnside, B. J. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013). [Crossref] McFarland, M. N.. A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] Meglic, A.. G. Belušič, K. Šporar, and A. Meglič, “Extreme polarization sensitivity in the retina of the corn borer moth Ostrinia,” J. Exp. Biol. 220, 2047–2056 (2017). [Crossref] Merikallio, S.. S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] Messmer, A.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Michaels, T. I.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Milham, M. E.. W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] Min, M.. O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] Mishchenko, M.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Mishchenko, M. I.. M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 135–144 (2013). [Crossref] L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5052–5057 (2000). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998). [Crossref] R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] A. Macke and M. I. Mishchenko, “Applicability of regular particle shapes in light scattering calculations for atmospheric ice particles,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4291–4296 (1996). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, W. J. Wiscombe, and L. D. Travis, “Overview of scattering by nonspherical particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 29–60. Mitchell, J. G.. Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] Mo, O.. M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Mobley, C. D.. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994). Möhler, O.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] Moosmüller, H.. H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: a review,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 844–878 (2009). [Crossref] Morel, A.. D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001). [Crossref] Moshary, F.. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Moteki, N.. N. Moteki, Y. Kondo, and S. I. Nakamura, “Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: application to black carbon particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 41, 513–521 (2010). [Crossref] Mukherjee, L.. L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] Mullen, L.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Munoz, O.. O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] Muñoz, H. E.. M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] Muñoz, O.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] Myasnikov, E. V.. A. P. Vasilkov, T. V. Kondranin, and E. V. Myasnikov, “Determination of vertical dependence of the scattering coefficient from polarization characteristics of backscattering light at pulse remote sensing of the ocean,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 26, 307–312 (1990). Nadal, F.. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Nagai, T.. T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] Nakamura, S. I.. N. Moteki, Y. Kondo, and S. I. Nakamura, “Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: application to black carbon particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 41, 513–521 (2010). [Crossref] Naumann, K.. M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Nayak, A. R.. A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] Nootz, G.. D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). Nousiainen, T.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] Okada, K.. K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] Osada, K.. J. Li and K. Osada, “Water-insoluble particles in spring snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan: characteristics of the shape factors and size distribution in relation with their origin and transportation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85, 137–149 (2007). [Crossref] Osborne, S.. C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] Partridge, J. C.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] Pelon, J.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Penta, B.. A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). Perry, G.. J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Petzold, A.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Pignatelli, V.. S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] Plakhina, I. N.. Y. S. Lyubovtseva and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurements of the light scattering matrices of suspensions of nonspherical particles,” Oceanology 15, 111–115 (1976). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by sea water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557 (1971). Plata, D. L.. D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] Pollingher, U.. H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] Powell, S.. S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] Prentice, J.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Pust, N. J.. M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] Qin, Y.. K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] Querry, M. R.. G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical Constants of Water in the 200-nm to 200-μm Wavelength Region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [Crossref] M. R. Querry, Optical Constants (1985). Quinby-Hunt, M. S.. M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, and A. J. Hunt, “Polarized light scattering in the marine environment,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (2000), Vol. 525. Quirantes, A.. A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006). [Crossref] A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light scattering by marine algae: two-layer spherical and nonspherical models,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 89, 311–321 (2004). [Crossref] Reddy, C. M.. D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] Regensburg, D.. R. Schwind, Z. Der Universität, and D. Regensburg, “Daphnia Pulex swims towards the most strongly polarized light—a response that leads to “shore flight”,” J. Exp. Biol. 3635, 3631–3635 (1999). Reid, E. A.. E. A. Reid, “Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8591 (2003). [Crossref] Remer, L. A.. M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] Richard, D. T.. B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] Richardson, M. J.. M. J. Richardson, “Particle size, light scattering and composition of suspended particulate matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 34, 1301–1329 (1987). [Crossref] Roberts, N. W.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] Roddewig, M. R.. M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] Rodier, S.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Rodier, S. D.. M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Roger, B.. M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Rozenberg, G. V.. Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106 (1976). Rudich, Y.. G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Rutledge, P.. N. Shashar, P. Rutledge, and T. Cronin, “Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?” J. Exp. Biol. 199, 2077–2084 (1996). Saathoff, H.. M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Sabbah, S.. A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4726–4739 (2006). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, “Transmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619–3628 (2004). [Crossref] S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Under water polarization vision-A physical examination,” in Transworld Research Network India Recent Research and Development Experimental & Theoretical Biology (2005), Vol. 37661, pp. 81–7895. Sakai, T.. T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] Sam, A.. A. Sam, C. O. Gomez, and J. A. Finch, “Axial velocity profiles of single bubbles in water/frother solutions,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 47, 177–196 (1996). [Crossref] Santer, R.. M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001). [Crossref] Sassen, K.. K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the facility for atmospheric remote sensing. Part ii: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998). [Crossref] K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991). [Crossref] R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971). [Crossref] Sato, M.. S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962 (1980). [Crossref] Scarnato, B. V.. B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] Scheuvens, D.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] Schkolnik, G.. G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Schladitz, A.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Schnaiter, M.. E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Schotland, R. M.. R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971). [Crossref] Schreurs, R.. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Schultz, H.. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] Schütz, L.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Schwind, R.. R. Schwind, Z. Der Universität, and D. Regensburg, “Daphnia Pulex swims towards the most strongly polarized light—a response that leads to “shore flight”,” J. Exp. Biol. 3635, 3631–3635 (1999). Sedlak, M.. D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. Seymour, J. R.. Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] Shapiro, D.. M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] Shashar, N.. A. Lerner, N. Shashar, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effects of hydrosol size and composition on linear polarization in absorbing and nonabsorbing clear and semiturbid waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2394–2405 (2012). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4726–4739 (2006). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, “Transmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619–3628 (2004). [Crossref] T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461–2467 (2001). N. Shashar, P. Rutledge, and T. Cronin, “Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?” J. Exp. Biol. 199, 2077–2084 (1996). S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Under water polarization vision-A physical examination,” in Transworld Research Network India Recent Research and Development Experimental & Theoretical Biology (2005), Vol. 37661, pp. 81–7895. Shaw, J. A.. M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] Sheives, T. C.. T. C. Sheives, A Study of a Dual Polarization Laser Backscatter System for Remote Identification and Measurement of Water Pollution (1974). Shen, J.. X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). Shen, L.. Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] Shkuratov, Y. G.. O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] Sieburth, J. M.. P. W. Johnson and J. M. Sieburth, “In-situ morphology and occurrence of eucaryotic phototrophs of bacterial size in the picoplankton of estuarine and oceanic waters 1,” J. Phycol. 18, 318–327 (1982). [Crossref] Silker, W. B.. J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Sinyuk, A.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] A. Sinyuk, O. Torres, and O. Dubovik, “Combined use of satellite and surface observations to infer the imaginary part of refractive index of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 3–6 (2003). [Crossref] Slutsker, I.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Sorokin, M.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Souaidia, N.. K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010). [Crossref] Šporar, K.. G. Belušič, K. Šporar, and A. Meglič, “Extreme polarization sensitivity in the retina of the corn borer moth Ostrinia,” J. Exp. Biol. 220, 2047–2056 (2017). [Crossref] Stamnes, J. J.. Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010). [Crossref] Stamnes, K.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Stamnes, S.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Stewart, F. J.. F. J. Stewart, M. Kinoshita, and K. Arikawa, “A novel display system reveals anisotropic polarization perception in the motion vision of the butterfly Papilio xuthus,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 1130–1138 (2017). [Crossref] Stocker, R.. Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] Stone, R.. R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971). [Crossref] Stramski, D.. D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001). [Crossref] D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Optical properties of marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics X (1990), Vol. 1302, pp. 250–269. Sukenik, C. I.. B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] Sullivan, J. M.. A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). Sun, B.. B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] Sun, W.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Sun, X.. X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). Susstrunk, S.. J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Susstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (2013), pp. 168–179. Svensen, Ø.. Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] Swietlicki, E.. G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Swift, R. N.. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] Takano, Y.. K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1581–1594 (2011). [Crossref] Tanré, D.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] Temple, S. E.. I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] Thompson, R. C.. R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, and E. S. Fry, “Scattering matrix measurements of oceanic hydrosols,” in Ocean Optics V (1978), Vol. 160, pp. 43–49. Timofeyeva, V. A.. V. A. Timofeyeva, “Spatial distribution of the degree of polarization of natural light in the sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 12, 1160–1164 (1962). Titus, T. N.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Tomasko, M. G.. R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] Tonizzo, A.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Torres, O.. A. Sinyuk, O. Torres, and O. Dubovik, “Combined use of satellite and surface observations to infer the imaginary part of refractive index of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 3–6 (2003). [Crossref] Travis, L. D.. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, W. J. Wiscombe, and L. D. Travis, “Overview of scattering by nonspherical particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 29–60. Trepte, C.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Trepte, C. R.. M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] Tsai, D.. D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. Twardowski, M.. P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] Twardowski, M. S.. A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Tyo, J. S.. J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] Tzabari, M.. M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] Vahidinia, S.. B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] Van De Merwe, W. P.. W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, and B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057(1989). [Crossref] van der Zande, W. J.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] van Diedenhoven, B.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Varjú, D.. G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Underwater refraction-polarization patterns of skylight perceived by aquatic animals through Snell’s window of the flat water surface,” Vision Res. 35, 1651–1666 (1995). [Crossref] Vasilkov, A. P.. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] A. P. Vasilkov, T. V. Kondranin, and E. V. Myasnikov, “Determination of vertical dependence of the scattering coefficient from polarization characteristics of backscattering light at pulse remote sensing of the ocean,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 26, 307–312 (1990). Vassen, W.. O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Veihelmann, B.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] Verhappen, R.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Videen, G.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Volten, H.. O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] H. Volten, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001). [Crossref] H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Voss, K. J.. P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010). [Crossref] E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984). [Crossref] Wagner, R.. M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] Wang, H.. X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). Waquet, F.. D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] Wasilewski, A.. S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] Waterman, T. H.. A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129–148 (1961). [Crossref] A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 283–307 (1958). Waters, L. B. F. M.. O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] Wei, J.. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] Weidemann, A.. J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] Weidemann, A. D.. A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). Weinbruch, S.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Weinzierl, B.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] West, R. A.. R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] Whiles, M. R.. M. R. Whiles and W. K. Dodds, “Relationships between stream size, suspended particles, and filter-feeding macroinvertebrates in a great plains drainage network,” J. Environ. Qual. 31, 1589–1600(2002). [Crossref] Widder, E. A.. S. Johnsen, N. J. Marshall, and E. A. Widder, “Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 655–670 (2011). Wiedensohler, A.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Wilson, J.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Winker, D. M.. L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] Wiscombe, W. J.. M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, W. J. Wiscombe, and L. D. Travis, “Overview of scattering by nonspherical particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 29–60. Wolff, M. J.. A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] Wouts, R.. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] Wozniak, B.. B. Wozniak and J. Derra, Light Absorption in Sea Water (Springer, 2007), Vol. 33. Wright, C. W.. A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] Xia, M.. H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] Xie, Y.. G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. Xu, G.. G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] Xu, Z.. Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] Yamasoe, M. A.. M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] Yang, K.. H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] Yang, P.. B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 155, 10–21 (2015). [Crossref] X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Accurate simulation of the optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals with the invariant imbedding T-matrix method,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 138, 17–35 (2014). [Crossref] L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1581–1594 (2011). [Crossref] O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. You, Y.. Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. Yue, D. K. P.. Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] Zaizen, Y.. T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] Zakharova, N. T.. N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5052–5057 (2000). [Crossref] Zappa, C. J.. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] Zeng, S.. X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] Zhai, P. W.. L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] Zhang, D.. P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] Zhang, K.. L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] Zhang, X.. B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998). [Crossref] Zhou, J.. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] Zimmerman, R. C.. B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] Zohary, T.. H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] Zorn, S.. K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Zugger, M. E.. M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. (1). E. Breitenbach, R. Lampe, and T. Leipe, “Investigations on mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Odra estuary,” Acta Hydrochim. Hydrobiol. 27, 298–302 (1999). [Crossref] Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1). T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: an investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40, 27–67 (2006). [Crossref] Algal Res. (1). S. Abu-Ghosh, V. B. Kumar, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, A. Gedanken, and D. Iluz, “Nitrogen-doped carbon dots prepared from bovine serum albumin to enhance algal astaxanthin production,” Algal Res. 23, 161–165 (2017). [Crossref] Appl. Opt. (25). X. Zhang, M. Lewis, and B. Johnson, “Influence of bubbles on scattering of light in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6525–6536 (1998). [Crossref] S. C. Hill, A. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Light scattering by size/shape distributions of soil particles and spheroids,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1025–1031 (1984). [Crossref] S. Sabbah and N. Shashar, “Underwater light polarization and radiance fluctuations induced by surface waves,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4726–4739 (2006). [Crossref] W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston, “Unfolded optical glory of spheroids: backscattering of laser light from freely rising spheroidal air bubbles in water,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3429–3442 (1991). [Crossref] S. Asano and M. Sato, “Light scattering by randomly oriented spheroidal particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 962 (1980). [Crossref] S. D. Druger, J. Czege, Z. Li, and B. V. Bronk, “Light scattering calculations exploring sensitivity of depolarization ratio to shape changes. I. Single spores in air,” Appl. Opt. 48, 716–724 (2009). [Crossref] M. Kotlarchyk, S. Chen, and S. Asano, “Accuracy of RGD approximation for computing light scattering properties of diffusing and motile bacteria,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2470–2479 (1979). [Crossref] A. P. Vasilkov, Y. A. Goldin, B. A. Gureev, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, and C. W. Wright, “Airborne polarized lidar detection of scattering layers in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4353–4364 (2001). [Crossref] M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001). [Crossref] J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006). [Crossref] Y. You, A. Tonizzo, A. A. Gilerson, M. E. Cummings, P. Brady, J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, H. M. Dierssen, S. A. Ahmed, and G. W. Kattawar, “Measurements and simulations of polarization states of underwater light in clear oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4873(2011). [Crossref] S. Stamnes, C. Hostetler, R. Ferrare, S. Burton, X. Liu, J. Hair, Y. Hu, A. Wasilewski, W. Martin, B. van Diedenhoven, J. Chowdhary, I. Cetinić, L. K. Berg, K. Stamnes, and B. Cairns, “Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the” MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 57, 2394–2413 (2018). [Crossref] J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [Crossref] G. W. Kattawar, “Genesis and evolution of polarization of light in the ocean [invited],” Appl. Opt. 52, 940–948 (2013). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984). [Crossref] D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2929–2945 (2001). [Crossref] J. T. Adams and D. J. Gray, “Neutral points in an atmosphere-ocean system. 2: downwelling light field,” Appl. Opt. 50, 335–346 (2011). [Crossref] Ø. Svensen, J. J. Stamnes, M. Kildemo, L. M. S. Aas, S. R. Erga, and Ø. Frette, “Mueller matrix measurements of algae with different shape and size distributions,” Appl. Opt. 50, 5149–5157 (2011). [Crossref] M. Tzabari, A. Lerner, D. Iluz, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effect of the optical and physical properties of coated spherical particles on linear polarization in clear to semiturbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 57, 5806 (2018). [Crossref] A. Macke and M. I. Mishchenko, “Applicability of regular particle shapes in light scattering calculations for atmospheric ice particles,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4291–4296 (1996). [Crossref] G. M. Hale and M. R. Querry, “Optical Constants of Water in the 200-nm to 200-μm Wavelength Region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973). [Crossref] N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, “Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5052–5057 (2000). [Crossref] T. Sakai, T. Nagai, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Mano, “Backscattering linear depolarization ratio measurements of mineral, sea-salt, and ammonium sulfate particles simulated in a laboratory chamber,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4441–4449 (2010). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, D. R. Huffman, and B. V. Bronk, “Reproducibility and sensitivity of polarized light scattering for identifying bacterial suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 28, 5052–5057(1989). [Crossref] W. P. Van De Merwe, J. Czégé, M. E. Milham, and B. V. Bronk, “Rapid optically based measurements of diameter and length for spherical or rod-shaped bacteria in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5295–5302(2004). [Crossref] Appl. Sci. (1). B. Sun, G. Kattawar, P. Yang, and X. Zhang, “A brief review of Mueller matrix calculations associated with oceanic particles,” Appl. Sci. 8, 2686 (2018). [Crossref] Aquat. Microb. Ecol. (1). F. J. Jochem, “Morphology and DNA content of bacterioplankton in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Analysis by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry,” Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 25, 179–194 (2001). [Crossref] Astron. Astrophys. (1). O. Muñoz, H. Volten, J. W. Hovenier, M. Min, Y. G. Shkuratov, J. P. Jalava, W. J. van der Zande, and L. B. F. M. Waters, “Experimental and computational study of light scattering by irregular particles with extreme refractive indices: hematite and rutile,” Astron. Astrophys. 446, 525–535 (2006). [Crossref] Atmos. Chem. Phys. (3). B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 5089–5101 (2013). [Crossref] S. Merikallio, H. Lindqvist, T. Nousiainen, and M. Kahnert, “Modelling light scattering by mineral dust using spheroids: Assessment of applicability,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 5347–5363 (2011). [Crossref] P. Formenti, L. Schütz, Y. Balkanski, K. Desboeufs, M. Ebert, K. Kandler, A. Petzold, D. Scheuvens, S. Weinbruch, and D. Zhang, “Recent progress in understanding physical and chemical properties of African and Asian mineral dust,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 8231–8256 (2011). [Crossref] Atmos. Environ. (1). G. Schkolnik, D. Chand, A. Hoffer, M. O. Andreae, C. Erlick, E. Swietlicki, and Y. Rudich, “Constraining the density and complex refractive index of elemental and organic carbon in biomass burning aerosol using optical and chemical measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 41, 1107–1118 (2007). [Crossref] Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1). D. Tanré, F. M. Bréon, J. L. Deuzé, O. Dubovik, F. Ducos, P. François, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Lifermann, and F. Waquet, “Remote sensing of aerosols by using polarized, directional and spectral measurements within the A-Train: the PARASOL mission,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1383–1395 (2011). [Crossref] Biophys. J. (1). W. P. Van De Merwe, Z. Z. Li, B. V. Bronk, and J. Czégé, “Polarized light scattering for rapid observation of bacterial size changes,” Biophys. J. 73, 500–506 (1997). [Crossref] Bioresour. Technol. (1). S. Abu-Ghosh, D. Fixler, Z. Dubinsky, and D. Iluz, “Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology,” Bioresour. Technol. 203, 357–363 (2016). [Crossref] Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1). K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: a review and current assessment,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 72, 1848–1866 (1991). [Crossref] Curr. Biol. (3). S. E. Temple, V. Pignatelli, T. Cook, M. J. How, T. H. Chiou, N. W. Roberts, and N. J. Marshall, “High-resolution polarisation vision in a cuttlefish,” Curr. Biol. 22, R121–R122 (2012). [Crossref] M. J. How, J. H. Christy, S. E. Temple, J. M. Hemmi, N. J. Marshall, and N. W. Roberts, “Target detection is enhanced by polarization vision in a fiddler crab,” Curr. Biol. 25, 3069–3073 (2015). [Crossref] S. Johnsen, Y. L. Gagnon, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, V. Gruev, and S. Powell, “Polarization vision seldom increases the sighting distance of silvery fish,” Curr. Biol. 26, R752–R754 (2016). [Crossref] Deep Sea Res. (1). J. K. B. Bishop, J. M. Edmond, D. R. Ketten, M. P. Bacon, and W. B. Silker, “The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400  m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean,” Deep Sea Res. 24, 511–548 (1977). [Crossref] Deep Sea Res. Part A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. (1). M. J. Richardson, “Particle size, light scattering and composition of suspended particulate matter in the North Atlantic,” Deep Sea Res. Part A, Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 34, 1301–1329 (1987). [Crossref] Geophys. Res. Lett. (4). A. Sinyuk, O. Torres, and O. Dubovik, “Combined use of satellite and surface observations to infer the imaginary part of refractive index of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 3–6 (2003). [Crossref] K. Okada, J. Heintzenberg, K. Kai, and Y. Qin, “Shape of atmospheric mineral particles collected in three Chinese arid-regions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3123–3126 (2001). [Crossref] M. J. Behrenfeld, Y. Hu, C. A. Hostetler, G. Dall’Olmo, S. D. Rodier, J. W. Hair, and C. R. Trepte, “Space-based lidar measurements of global ocean carbon stocks,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 4355–4360 (2013). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and K. Sassen, “Depolarization of lidar returns by small ice crystals: an application to contrails,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 309–312 (1998). [Crossref] Int. J. Miner. Process. (1). A. Sam, C. O. Gomez, and J. A. Finch, “Axial velocity profiles of single bubbles in water/frother solutions,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 47, 177–196 (1996). [Crossref] Integr. Comp. Biol. (2). T. W. Cronin, “Polarization vision and its role in biological signaling,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 549–558 (2003). [Crossref] F. J. Stewart, M. Kinoshita, and K. Arikawa, “A novel display system reveals anisotropic polarization perception in the motion vision of the butterfly Papilio xuthus,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 1130–1138 (2017). [Crossref] Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (4). A. P. Vasilkov, T. V. Kondranin, and E. V. Myasnikov, “Determination of vertical dependence of the scattering coefficient from polarization characteristics of backscattering light at pulse remote sensing of the ocean,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 26, 307–312 (1990). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurement of matrices for light scattered by sea water,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 7, 557 (1971). Y. A. Kadyshevich, Y. S. Lyubovtseva, and G. V. Rozenberg, “Light-scattering matrices of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean waters,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 12, 106 (1976). Y. A. Kadyshevich, “Light-scattering matrices of inshore waters of the Baltic Sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 13, 77 (1977). Izv. Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (Engl. Transl.) (1). V. A. Timofeyeva, “Spatial distribution of the degree of polarization of natural light in the sea,” Izv. Acad. Sci., USSR, Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (Engl. Transl.) 12, 1160–1164 (1962). J. Aerosol Sci. (1). N. Moteki, Y. Kondo, and S. I. Nakamura, “Method to measure refractive indices of small nonspherical particles: application to black carbon particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 41, 513–521 (2010). [Crossref] J. Appl. Meteorol. (1). R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011–1017 (1971). [Crossref] J. Appl. Remote Sens. (1). J. H. Churnside, R. D. Marchbanks, J. H. Lee, J. A. Shaw, A. Weidemann, and P. L. Donaghay, “Airborne lidar detection and characterization of internal waves in a shallow fjord,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063611 (2012). [Crossref] J. Atmos. Sci. (1). K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the facility for atmospheric remote sensing. Part ii: microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 2103–2112 (2001). [Crossref] J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1). J. Janzen, “The refractive index of colloidal carbon,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 436–447 (1979). [Crossref] J. Comp. Physiol. A (1). S. M. Goddard and R. B. Forward, “The role of the underwater polarized light pattern, in sun compass navigation of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes vulgaris,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 169, 479–491 (1991). [Crossref] J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1). X. Sun, H. Wang, J. Shen, and W. Liu, “Depolarization of light backscattering by randomly oriented spheroids with inclusions,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 25, 1448–1458 (2011). J. Environ. Qual. (1). M. R. Whiles and W. K. Dodds, “Relationships between stream size, suspended particles, and filter-feeding macroinvertebrates in a great plains drainage network,” J. Environ. Qual. 31, 1589–1600(2002). [Crossref] J. Exp. Biol. (5). G. Belušič, K. Šporar, and A. Meglič, “Extreme polarization sensitivity in the retina of the corn borer moth Ostrinia,” J. Exp. Biol. 220, 2047–2056 (2017). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T. W. Cronin, “Transmission of linearly polarized light in seawater: implications for polarization signaling,” J. Exp. Biol. 207, 3619–3628 (2004). [Crossref] N. Shashar, P. Rutledge, and T. Cronin, “Polarization vision in cuttlefish in a concealed communication channel?” J. Exp. Biol. 199, 2077–2084 (1996). R. Schwind, Z. Der Universität, and D. Regensburg, “Daphnia Pulex swims towards the most strongly polarized light—a response that leads to “shore flight”,” J. Exp. Biol. 3635, 3631–3635 (1999). T. W. Cronin and N. Shashar, “The linearly polarized light field in clear, tropical marine waters: spatial and temporal variation of light intensity, degree of polarization and e-vector angle,” J. Exp. Biol. 204, 2461–2467 (2001). J. Geophys. Res. (6). H. Volten, “Scattering matrices of mineral aerosol particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 17375–17401 (2001). [Crossref] O. Munoz, H. Volten, J. F. De Haan, W. Vassen, and J. W. Hovenier, “Experimental determination of scattering matrices of randomly oriented fly ash and clay particles at 442 and the whole scattering matrix for randomly oriented particles of three mineral,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 22833–22844 (2001). [Crossref] G. F. Beardsley, “The polarization of submarine daylight at near-asymptotic depths,” J. Geophys. Res. 73, 6449–6457 (1968). [Crossref] R. A. West, L. R. Doose, A. M. Eibl, M. G. Tomasko, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Laboratory measurements of mineral dust scattering phase function,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16871–16882 (1997). [Crossref] E. A. Reid, “Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8591 (2003). [Crossref] M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Mo, K. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and R. Wagner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (5). M. A. Yamasoe, Y. J. Kaufman, O. Dubovik, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, and P. Artaxo, “Retrieval of the real part of the refractive index of smoke particles from Sun/sky measurements during SCAR-B,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 103, 31893–31902 (1998). [Crossref] K. A. Fuller, W. C. Malm, and S. M. Kreidenweis, “Effects of mixing on extinction by carbonaceous particles,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 104, 15941–15954 (1999). [Crossref] O. Dubovik, A. Sinyuk, T. Lapyonok, B. N. Holben, M. Mishchenko, P. Yang, T. F. Eck, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, B. Veihelmann, W. J. van der Zande, J. F. Leon, M. Sorokin, and I. Slutsker, “Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111, 1–34 (2006). [Crossref] C. Chou, P. Formenti, M. Maille, P. Ausset, G. Helas, M. Harrison, and S. Osborne, “Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observation period 0: dust and biomass-burning experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 113, 1–17 (2008). [Crossref] J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. H. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106, 4913–4926 (2001). [Crossref] J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. (1). M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. D Atmos. 110, 1–11 (2005). [Crossref] J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. (4). M. Chami, “Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 112, 1–13 (2007). [Crossref] P. Bhandari, K. J. Voss, L. Logan, and M. Twardowski, “The variation of the polarized downwelling radiance distribution with depth in the coastal and clear ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–16 (2011). [Crossref] Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, K. J. Voss, P. Bhandari, J. Wei, M. Lewis, C. J. Zappa, and H. Schultz, “Polarized light field under dynamic ocean surfaces: Numerical modeling compared with measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, C00H05 (2011). [Crossref] Z. Xu, D. K. P. Yue, L. Shen, and K. J. Voss, “Patterns and statistics of in-water polarization under conditions of linear and nonlinear ocean surface waves,” J. Geophys. Res. Ocean. 116, 1–14(2011). [Crossref] J. Mar. Res. (1). A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, “Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization,” J. Mar. Res. 16, 283–307 (1958). J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan (1). J. Li and K. Osada, “Water-insoluble particles in spring snow at Mt. Tateyama, Japan: characteristics of the shape factors and size distribution in relation with their origin and transportation,” J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85, 137–149 (2007). [Crossref] J. Opt. A (1). A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Optical properties of bubbles,” J. Opt. A 5, 47 (2002). [Crossref] J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1). A. Lerner, N. Shashar, and C. Haspel, “Sensitivity study on the effects of hydrosol size and composition on linear polarization in absorbing and nonabsorbing clear and semiturbid waters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 2394–2405 (2012). [Crossref] J. Phycol. (2). P. W. Johnson and J. M. Sieburth, “In-situ morphology and occurrence of eucaryotic phototrophs of bacterial size in the picoplankton of estuarine and oceanic waters 1,” J. Phycol. 18, 318–327 (1982). [Crossref] H. Hillebrand, C. D. Dürselen, D. Kirschtel, U. Pollingher, and T. Zohary, “Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae,” J. Phycol. 35, 403–424 (1999). [Crossref] J. Plankton Res. (1). E. Aas, “Refractive index of phytoplankton derived from its metabolite composition,” J. Plankton Res. 18, 2223–2249 (1996). [Crossref] J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (16). H. He, W. Li, X. Zhang, M. Xia, and K. Yang, “Light scattering by a spheroidal bubble with geometrical optics approximation,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1467–1475 (2012). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998). [Crossref] L. Bi, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Efficient implementation of the invariant imbedding T-matrix method and the separation of variables method applied to large nonspherical inhomogeneous particles,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 116, 169–183 (2013). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Accurate simulation of the optical properties of atmospheric ice crystals with the invariant imbedding T-matrix method,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 138, 17–35 (2014). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix modeling of linear depolarization by morphologically complex soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 135–144 (2013). [Crossref] H. Moosmüller, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott, “Aerosol light absorption and its measurement: a review,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 844–878 (2009). [Crossref] K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, and P. Yang, “Light absorption and scattering by aggregates: application to black carbon and snow grains,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112, 1581–1594 (2011). [Crossref] L. Bi and P. Yang, “Impact of calcification state on the inherent optical properties of Emiliania huxleyi coccoliths and coccolithophores,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 155, 10–21 (2015). [Crossref] A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light-scattering methods for modelling algal particles as a collection of coated and/or nonspherical scatterers,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 315–324 (2006). [Crossref] M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994). [Crossref] A. Quirantes and S. Bernard, “Light scattering by marine algae: two-layer spherical and nonspherical models,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 89, 311–321 (2004). [Crossref] B. Sun, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, M. S. Twardowski, and J. M. Sullivan, “Simulation of the scattering properties of a chain-forming triangular prism oceanic diatom,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 390–399 (2016). [Crossref] G. Xu, B. Sun, S. D. Brooks, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, and X. Zhang, “Modeling the inherent optical properties of aquatic particles using an irregular hexahedral ensemble,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 191, 30–39 (2017). [Crossref] E. Järvinen, O. Kemppinen, T. Nousiainen, T. Kociok, O. Möhler, T. Leisner, and M. Schnaiter, “Laboratory investigations of mineral dust near-backscattering depolarization ratios,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 178, 192–208 (2016). [Crossref] A. J. Brown, T. I. Michaels, S. Byrne, W. Sun, T. N. Titus, A. Colaprete, M. J. Wolff, G. Videen, and C. J. Grund, “The case for a modern multiwavelength, polarization-sensitive LIDAR in orbit around Mars,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 153, 131–143 (2015). [Crossref] X. Huang, P. Yang, G. Kattawar, and K. N. Liou, “Effect of mineral dust aerosol aspect ratio on polarized reflectance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 151, 97–109 (2015). [Crossref] Limnol. Oceanogr. (8). A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, “A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129–148 (1961). [Crossref] M. E. Zugger, A. Messmer, T. J. Kane, J. Prentice, B. Concannon, A. Laux, and L. Mullen, “Optical scattering properties of phytoplankton: Measurements and comparison of various species at scattering angles between 1° and 170°,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53, 381–386 (2008). [Crossref] E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton1,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985). [Crossref] H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197(1998). [Crossref] M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, and D. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600 (1989). [Crossref] H. R. Gordon and T. Du, “light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detatched from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001). [Crossref] M. Jonasz, “Nonsphericity of suspended particles and its influence on light scattering,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 32, 1059–1065 (1987). [Crossref] A. R. Nayak, M. N. McFarland, J. M. Sullivan, and M. S. Twardowski, “Evidence for ubiquitous preferential particle orientation in representative oceanic shear flows,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 63, 122–143 (2018). [Crossref] Mar. Chem. (1). D. X. Flores-Cervantes, D. L. Plata, J. K. MacFarlane, C. M. Reddy, and P. M. Gschwend, “Black carbon in marine particulate organic carbon: Inputs and cycling of highly recalcitrant organic carbon in the Gulf of Maine,” Mar. Chem. 113, 172–181 (2009). [Crossref] Mar. Geol. (1). M. Jonasz, “Nonspherical sediment particles: comparison of size and volume distributions obtained with an optical and a resistive particle counter,” Mar. Geol. 78, 137–142 (1987). [Crossref] Nat. Commun. (1). I. M. Daly, M. J. How, J. C. Partridge, S. E. Temple, N. J. Marshall, T. W. Cronin, and N. W. Roberts, “Dynamic polarization vision in mantis shrimps,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12140 (2016). [Crossref] Oceanology (1). Y. S. Lyubovtseva and I. N. Plakhina, “Measurements of the light scattering matrices of suspensions of nonspherical particles,” Oceanology 15, 111–115 (1976). Opt. Eng. (1). M. R. Roddewig, N. J. Pust, J. H. Churnside, and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-polarization airborne lidar for freshwater fisheries management and research,” Opt. Eng. 56, 031221 (2017). [Crossref] Opt. Express (8). X. Lu, Y. Hu, J. Pelon, C. Trepte, K. Liu, S. Rodier, S. Zeng, P. Lucker, R. Verhappen, J. Wilson, C. Audouy, C. Ferrier, S. Haouchine, B. Hunt, and B. Getzewich, “Retrieval of ocean subsurface particulate backscattering coefficient from space-borne CALIOP lidar measurements,” Opt. Express 24, 29001–29008 (2016). [Crossref] K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, “Polarization effects on oceanographic lidar,” Opt. Express 16, 1196–1207 (2008). [Crossref] J. H. Churnside, “Lidar signature from bubbles in the sea,” Opt. Express 18, 8294–8299 (2010). [Crossref] J. K. Lotsberg and J. J. Stamnes, “Impact of particulate oceanic composition on the radiance and polarization of underwater and backscattered light,” Opt. Express 18, 10432–10445 (2010). [Crossref] A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, “Polarized light in coastal waters: hyperspectral and multiangular analysis,” Opt. Express 17, 5666–5683 (2009). [Crossref] L. Mukherjee, P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, and D. M. Winker, “Single scattering properties of nonspherical hydrosols modeled by spheroids,” Opt. Express 26, A124–A135 (2018). [Crossref] L. Bi, W. Lin, D. Liu, and K. Zhang, “Assessing the depolarization capabilities of nonspherical particles in a super-ellipsoidal shape space,” Opt. Express 26, 1426–1439 (2018). [Crossref] Opt. Lett. (1). M. I. Mishchenko and J. W. Hovenier, “Depolarization of light backscattered by randomly oriented nonspherical particles,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1356–1358 (1995). [Crossref] Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B (3). S. Johnsen, N. J. Marshall, and E. A. Widder, “Polarization sensitivity as a contrast enhancer in pelagic predators: lessons from in situ polarization imaging of transparent zooplankton,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 655–670 (2011). A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Navigation by light polarization in clear and turbid waters,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 671–679 (2011). [Crossref] N. Shashar, S. Johnsen, A. Lerner, S. Sabbah, C.-C. Chiao, L. M. Mathger, and R. T. Hanlon, “Underwater linear polarization: physical limitations to biological functions,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366, 649–654 (2011). [Crossref] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (2). Marcos, J. R. Seymour, M. Luhar, W. M. Durham, J. G. Mitchell, A. Macke, and R. Stocker, “Microbial alignment in flow changes ocean light climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 3860–3864 (2011). [Crossref] W. S. Bickel, J. F. Davidson, D. R. Huffman, and R. Kilkson, “Application of polarization effects in light scattering: a new biophysical tool,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73, 486–490 (1976). [Crossref] Remote Sens. (1). J. H. Churnside, B. J. McCarty, and X. Lu, “Subsurface ocean signals from an orbiting polarization lidar,” Remote Sens. 5, 3457–3475 (2013). [Crossref] Remote Sens. Environ. (1). B. L. Collister, R. C. Zimmerman, C. I. Sukenik, V. J. Hill, and W. M. Balch, “Remote sensing of optical characteristics and particle distributions of the upper ocean using shipboard lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 215, 85–96 (2018). [Crossref] Sci. Rep. (1). M. Li, H. E. Muñoz, K. Goda, and D. Di Carlo, “Shape-based separation of microalga Euglena gracilis using inertial microfluidics,” Sci. Rep. 7, 1–8 (2017). [Crossref] Tellus, Ser. B (1). K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009). [Crossref] Vision Res. (1). G. Horváth and D. Varjú, “Underwater refraction-polarization patterns of skylight perceived by aquatic animals through Snell’s window of the flat water surface,” Vision Res. 35, 1651–1666 (1995). [Crossref] Other (25). S. Sabbah, A. Lerner, C. Erlick, and N. Shashar, “Under water polarization vision-A physical examination,” in Transworld Research Network India Recent Research and Development Experimental & Theoretical Biology (2005), Vol. 37661, pp. 81–7895. A. D. Weidemann, D. J. Gray, S. C. Cayula, W. Goode, B. Penta, and J. M. Sullivan, “Polarized shipboard LIDAR ocean profiler for subsurface bio-optical layer characterization,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2316 (2016). D. B. Josset, W. Hou, W. Goode, G. Nootz, and S. Matt, “TURBulence Ocean Lidar (TURBOL): preliminary results of laboratory experiments,” in American Geophysical Union, Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016, Abstract# IS14B-2315 (2016). R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, and E. S. Fry, “Scattering matrix measurements of oceanic hydrosols,” in Ocean Optics V (1978), Vol. 160, pp. 43–49. J. Jiang, D. Liu, J. Gu, and S. Susstrunk, “What is the space of spectral sensitivity functions for digital color cameras?” in Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision (2013), pp. 168–179. W. Clavano, E. Boss, and L. Karp-Boss, Inherent Optical Properties of Nonspherical Marine-Like Particles, From Theory To Observation (2007). M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, and A. J. Hunt, “Polarized light scattering in the marine environment,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (2000), Vol. 525. M. Jonasz and G. R. Fournier, Light Scattering by Particles in Water: Theoretical and Experimental Constraints (Elsevier, 2007). A. Ivanoff, “Polarization measurements in the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography (1974), pp. 151–175. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994). G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, Y. You, L. Bi, Y. Xie, X. Huang, and S. Hioki, “Polarization of light in the atmosphere and ocean,” in Light Scattering Reviews 10 (Springer, 2016), pp. 3–39. R. Allman, R. Manchee, and D. Lloyd, “Flow cytometric analysis of heterogeneous bacterial populations,” in Flow Cytometry in Microbiology (Springer, 1993), pp. 27–47. D. Stramski, M. Sedlak, D. Tsai, E. J. Amis, and D. A. Kiefer, “Dynamic light scattering by cultures of heterotrophic marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics XI (1992), Vol. 1750, pp. 73–86. D. Stramski and D. A. Kiefer, “Optical properties of marine bacteria,” in Ocean Optics X (1990), Vol. 1302, pp. 250–269. J. H. Martin, “Iron as a limiting factor in oceanic productivity,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea (Springer, 1992), pp. 123–137. A. R. Jones, “Light scattering in combustion,” in Light Scattering Reviews 7, A. A. Kokhanovsky, ed. (2013), pp. 393–444. D. Iluz, I. Alexandrovich, and Z. Dubinsky, “The enhancement of photosynthesis by fluctuating light,” in Artificial Photosynthesis (InTech, 2012). E. Boss, personal communication, 2018. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983). B. Wozniak and J. Derra, Light Absorption in Sea Water (Springer, 2007), Vol. 33. D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry (CRC Press, 2001), Vol. 76, pp. 1995–1996. M. R. Querry, Optical Constants (1985). T. C. Sheives, A Study of a Dual Polarization Laser Backscatter System for Remote Identification and Measurement of Water Pollution (1974). M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, W. J. Wiscombe, and L. D. Travis, “Overview of scattering by nonspherical particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 29–60. A. Macke, personal communication, 2011. .

原始网站图片
 增加监测目标对象/主题,请 登录 直接在原文中划词!