SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody and neutralization assays reveal the wide range of the humoral immune response to virus
Mikail Dogan, Lina Kozhaya, Lindsey Placek, Courtney Gunter, Mesut Yigit, Rachel Hardy, Matthew Plassmeyer, Paige Coatney, Kimberleigh Lillard, Zaheer Bukhari, Michael Kleinberg, Chelsea Hayes, Moshe Arditi, Ellen Klapper, Noah Merin, Bruce Tsan-Tang Liang, Raavi Gupta, Oral Alpan & Derya Unutmaz
Communications Biology volume 4, Article number: 129 (2021)
Development of antibody protection during SARS-CoV-2 infection is a pressing question for public health and for vaccine development. We developed highly sensitive SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and neutralization assays. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleocapsid protein specific IgG antibodies at titers more than 1:100,000 were detectable in all PCR+ subjects (n = 115) and were absent in the negative controls. Other isotype antibodies (IgA, IgG1-4) were also detected. SARS-CoV-2 neutralization was determined in COVID-19 and convalescent plasma at up to 10,000-fold dilution, using Spike protein pseudotyped lentiviruses, which were also blocked by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Hospitalized patients had up to 3000-fold higher antibody and neutralization titers compared to outpatients or convalescent plasma donors. Interestingly, some COVID-19 patients also possessed NAbs against SARS-CoV Spike protein pseudovirus. Together these results demonstrate the high specificity and sensitivity of our assays, which may impact understanding the quality or duration of the antibody response during COVID-19 and in determining the effectiveness of potential vaccines.